Power output of diesel engines increases continually. More importantly, along with the continually improving performance characteristics of combustion engines, OEMs manage to improve the total efficiency resulting in lower fuel consumption figures. Additionally, the exhaust gas emissions have been dramatically reduced as mandated by the exhaust gas emission standards in Europe, commonly referred to as the Euro I, II, III, IV, V and VI standards, for on-road vehicles, regulating emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (HCs). Off-road vehicles must also comply with emission standards.
Along with the evolution of heavy-duty engine technology, the technology of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems has improved substantially as well. To meet Euro VI emission standards, OEMs use EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter) technology. Some OEMs minimize the EGR dosage or completely refrain from EGR.
The evolution of engine technology and improvement of engine characteristics have an impact on load (e.g. thermal, soot due to exhaust gas recirculation) on engine oil. Moreover, the use of exhaust gas aftertreatment devices imposes requirements for the chemical composition of engine oils.
The ACEA European Oil Sequences define the minimum quality level of service fill oils that the automotive industry members of the European Union demand for using in their vehicles. Currently, the applicable ACEA claims for heavy-duty diesel engine lubricants are E4, E6, E7 and E9. The table below provides a brief overview of the applications of these lubricants.
In some countries, a large percentage of the truck fleet are Euro III trucks or older. The selection of appropriate lubricants for Euro III trucks and older, which are not fitted with DPFs, is mainly guided by the desired drain interval and/or total maintenance cost objectives.
A typical example within the Oronite product range covering ACEA E2, E4 and E7: OLOA® 59770/59766/59762 additive packages.
Combined E6/E9 Engine Oils
To lubricate Euro VI trucks having sequential exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective catalytic reduct (SCR) and diesel particle filter (DPF) technology, either E9 lubricants for extended oil drains or E6 lubricants for significantly extended oil drains capabilities can be used. Lubricants combining E6/E9 offer a more universal set of OEM approvals. These top-tier lubricants combine API with ACEA specifications and carry OEM approvals as well.
A typical example within the Oronite product range covering ACEA E6/E9/E7: OLOA® 61005 additive package.
Engine Oils with Enhanced Fuel Economy
In Europe, official fuel economy legislation is not being enforced yet. But since fuel economy is the main purchasing factor for fleet owners, OEMs are compelled to develop competitive trucks. With the focus changed from curbing pollutants, such as Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulates, to curbing greenhouse gas emissions, a niche category of lubricants has emerged, differentiated by enhanced fuel economy:
A typical example within the Oronite product range covering SAE 10W-30 and 10W-40 grades: OLOA® 61011 additive package. A typical example within the Oronite product range covering SAE 5W-30 grades with low or high HTHS: OLOA® 61530 additive package.